Malaria remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is endemic to much of Africa, South America, and southeast Asia. Other malaria risk areas include the Middle east, some countries in Central America and Polynesia, with most other continents virtually free of the disease. The choice between RDTs and microscopy depends on local circumstances, including the skills available, patient case-load, epidemiology of malaria and the possible use of microscopy for the diagnosis of other diseases. Where the case-load of fever patients is high, microscopy is likely to be less expensive than RDTs, but may be less operationally feasible. Microscopy has further advantages in that it can be used for speciation and quantification of parasites, and to assess response to antimalarial treatment. Microscopy can also be used in the identification of other causes of fever. However, a major drawback of light microscopy is its requirement for well-trained, skilled staff and, usually, an energy source to power the microscope.
Biomass remains the primary energy source in the developing countries in Asia. It contributes over a third of primary energy in India. Biomass fuels are predominantly used in indian households for cooking and water heating, as well as by traditional and artisan industries. It reflects that indoor air pollution in urban households in Indian slums is responsible for high degree of morbidity and mortality stressing the dire need for immediate interventions in India. This book, therefore, provides an insight into the exposure assessment, of women using biomass fuels, to various indoor air pollutants and its effect on their respiratory health in urban areas of India. The indoor and outdoor pollutant concentration viz. RSPM, CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, time activity analysis and spatial and temporal variations are considered to be important factors for IAQ and health assessment .This study should be specifically useful to the policy makers, and environmentalists in the field of exposure assessment especially in developing countries.
India has developed high expertise to train its engineers and technocrats with the latest technology. This has made India one of the fast growing industrialised countries in Asia. There are several industries currently operating such as iron and steel works, engineering and fertiliser plants, oil refineries, power stations and factories making motor vehicles, aircrafts and other machines. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern African Development community (SADC) are some of the least industrialised of the worlds' macro regions. In addition, Africa still accounts for just over one per cent of world industries. Along with other parts of Africa the COMESA and the SADC regions are very rich in minerals, man power and energy. They need assistance from outside to boost their economy by promoting different industries such as agro-processing, steel, plastic, fibre optics etc. The book highlights India's present economic status and focuses on her existing foreign policies for Africa. The book examines the existing India-COMESA and India-SADC partnership and recommends augmenting number of industries in countries within the COMESA and SADC regions.
The theoretical potential of worldwide hydropower is 2800 GW, which is about four times greater than the amount that has been tapped so far. Much of this potential is found in areas that are exposed to monsoon periods such as the Himalaya and Andes. It is therefore expected that many power plants will be built in these areas in the future. However, rivers in these regions contain high amounts of sediments, which cause rapid erosion of turbine components. Most of the bigger turbines manufactures have developed their turbine designs for the projects with lesser problems of sediments. Consequently proper solution to this age long problem in these parts of world has not been found so far. Growing energy demands in Asia and Latin America has brought up necessity of better designs of hydro turbines, which in particular are capable to handle heavy sediments effectively. Future of sustainable hydropower business in these regions would be largely influenced by the effective solution for the existing problem of turbine erosion. This works is a contribution for development of hydraulic turbines with new Design Philosophy as a foundation for turbine manufacturing in Nepal.
The study focused on Adoption and Upscaling Up of Rooftop Solar PV deployment in urban centres using Nairobi city as the case study. Urban centres in Africa and Asia continents are growing at a high rate due to rapid rural-urban migration and urban internal growth hence need for an alternative and sustainable energy source. Rooftop solar PV deployment remains the main viable option that can be deployed across all electricity consumer categories. The report covered the following: an overview of the solar PV sector in Kenya, a review of already existing rooftop solar projects within Nairobi city and its outskirts, analysis on the existing financing options and business models applied and recommendations on business opportunities and gaps that can be utilized to scale up rooftop Solar PV deployment in urban centres
The Kayrakum Reservoir is situated along the Syr Darya (Syr River) in Central Asia, downstream from extensive mining and industrial operations. This document includes a description of these operations. The reservoir has been the recipient of large amounts of sediments since it was put into operation in 1950. As a preliminary study, 50 sediment and 23 soil samples were collected close to the shores of this reservoir and analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This technique has a sensitivity of 2 ppm for elements above K in the Periodic Table. The results revealed no dangerously high levels of heavy metals in the soils and sediments. However, given the history of mining and fabrication activities in the Syr Darya basin and given the importance of long term water quality below the reservoir, a more thorough analysis of reservoir sediments, especially those offshore, towards the middle of the reservoir and including the radiometric determination of uranium and thorium daughter products is warranted.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Sactoceras is an extinct genus of actively mobile carnivorous cephalapod, essentially a Nautiloid, that lived in what would be North America, Europe, and Asia during the Ordovician and Silurian from 479 418.7 mya, existing for approximately 60.3 million years. A carnivore , meaning 'meat eater' (Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour'), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Biofuels liquid fuels derived from plant materials are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of the biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use. The challenge is to support biofuel development, including the development of new cellulosic technologies, with responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. Responsible commercialization of biofuels represents an opportunity to enhance sustainable economic prospects in Africa, Latin America and Asia.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) in the United Kingdom is a requirement on transport fuel suppliers to ensure that 5 percent of all road vehicle fuel is supplied is from sustainable renewable sources by 2010. The Government intends to set variable targets for the level of carbon and sustainability performance expected from all transport fuel suppliers claiming certificates for biofuels in the early years of the RTFO. The announcement to introduce the Obligation was made on 10 November 2005, using powers included in the Energy Act 2004. It came into force on 15 April 2008. In mid-2005, biofuel made up 0.25% of overall road fuel sales, around 50% of it imported. The requirement that the biofuel sources should be sustainable is also important. In South America and Asia, the production of biofuels for export has in some cases resulted in significant ecological damage, including the clearing of rainforest.